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Highway Planning and Construction

Federal-Aid Highway Program, Federal Lands Highway Program
Number: 20.205
Agency: Department of Transportation
Office: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)

Program Information 

Program Number/Title (010):
20.205 Highway Planning and Construction
Federal Agency (030):
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Department of Transportation
Authorization (040):
Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21), Public Law 112-141, 23 U.S.C 101.
Objectives (050):
Federal-aid Highway Program: To help State departments of transportation (State DOT) to plan, construct, and preserve the National Highway System (NHS), an integrated, interconnected transportation system important to interstate commerce and travel; for transportation improvements to Federal-aid highways and bridges on all public roads; to foster safe highway design; to replace or rehabilitate deficient or obsolete bridges and to preserve bridges that are still in good condition; and to provide for other special purposes. This program also provides for the improvement of roads in the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The Federal Lands Highway Program: The Federal Lands Transportation Program (FLTP) provides assistance to the Federal Land Management Agencies (FLMAs) for Federally-owned roads and trails. It provides transportation engineering services and funding for planning, design, construction, and rehabilitation of the highways and bridges that are on or provide access to federally owned lands. The Federal Lands Highway organization also provides training, technology deployment, and engineering services to other customers.
Types of Assistance (060):
FORMULA GRANTS; PROJECT GRANTS
Uses and Use Restrictions (070):
Most Federal-aid highway funds are apportioned to the States by statutory formulas.. They are generally restricted to roads open to the public that are not functionally classified as rural minor collectors or local roads. Planning and research activities, bridges, bicycle and pedestrian paths, safety improvements on any public road, non-motorized transportation, the FLTP, and public transportation improvement are some exceptions to the highway functional classification restriction.. Federal-aid highway funds may be used for environmental studies, engineering and design services, right-of-way acquisition and relocation assistance, and construction for capital improvement projects classified as new construction, reconstruction, restoration, rehabilitation, resurfacing and preservation, or for functional, geometric, or safety reasons. Funds may also be used for planning; research, development, and technology transfer; intelligent transportation systems projects; roadside beautification; wetland and natural habitat mitigation; traffic management and control improvements; improvements necessary to accommodate other transportation modes; development and implementation of performance and asset management systems; billboard removal; construction of bicycle facilities and pedestrian walkways; fringe and corridor parking; car pool and van pool projects; transportation alternatives and enhancements such as scenic and historic highway improvements; and recreational trails. Funds generally cannot be used for routine highway operational activities, such as police patrols, mowing, snow plowing, litter control, or maintenance, unless it is preventative maintenance. Funding from the National Highway Performance Program (NHPP) is generally limited to projects on the NHS, which includes the Eisenhower Interstate System. Surface Transportation Program (STP) funds may be used on any Federal-aid highway or for bridges on any public road. Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program funds are limited to projects and programs in air quality that reduce transportation related emissions in non-attainment and maintenance areas for ozone, carbon monoxide, and small particulate, though provision is made for States without air quality issues. Eligibility criteria for the programs differ, so program guidance should be consulted. Federal -aid highway projects in metropolitan areas must be based on a transportation planning process carried out by a Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) in cooperation with the State, local officials, and transit operators. The projects must be included in the metropolitan transportation plan (MTP) and the transportation improvement program (TIP). Projects in non-metropolitan areas of a State must be consistent with a statewide transportation plan. Projects in both metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas must also be included in a fiscally constrained Statewide Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) developed as part of the required statewide transportation planning process. The FHWA and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) must approve the STIP jointly. Projects under the FLTP are also subject to metropolitan and statewide planning requirements. Program requirements and restrictions are contained in Title 23 United States Code. There are discretionary funds remaining from previous authorizations, which may remain available until expended.
Eligibility Requirements (080)
Applicant Eligibility (081):
By law, the Federal-aid highway program is a federally assisted State administered program that requires each State to have a suitably equipped and organized transportation department. Therefore, most projects are administered by or through State transportation departments (State DOTs). Projects to be funded under the Federal-aid highway program are generally selected by State DOTs or MPOs, in cooperation with appropriate local officials, as specified in 23 U.S.C. and implementing regulations. Territorial highway projects are funded in the same manner as other Federal aid highway projects, with the territorial transportation agency functioning in a manner similar to a State transportation department. Most FLTP projects are administered by the FHWA Office of Federal Lands Highway and its Divisions or by the various FLMAs.
Beneficiary Eligibility (082):
State transportation departments, and in some instances, Federal agencies, other State agencies, local agencies, and private, community-based organizations.
Credentials/Documentation (083):
Eligible activities and allowable costs will be determined in accordance with Title 23 and the OMB cost principles applicable to the recipient/sub-recipient. 2 CFR 200, Subpart E - Cost Principles applies to this program.
Application and Award Process (090)
Preapplication Coordination (091):
An environmental impact assessment is required for most projects under this program, although the level of review varies with the project. Concerning Executive Order 12372 -- Projects under the FLHP have similar requirements; however, an interested applicant would need to contact the designated FLMA or the local FLH Division for more information. An environmental impact assessment is required for this program. This program is eligible for coverage under E.O. 12372, "Intergovernmental Review of Federal Programs." An applicant should consult the office or official designated as the single point of contact in his or her State for more information on the process the State requires to be followed in applying for assistance, if the State has selected the program for review.
Application Procedures (092):
2 CFR 200, Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards applies to this program.
Award Procedure (093):
The State DOTs generally decide which projects will be developed within funding categories and levels. The FHWA division office, located in each State, approves and executes a project agreement for each project before work can commence. There are several categories where funding is allocated at the discretion of the Secretary of Transportation and administered by the FHWA. When such funding is available, FHWA will solicit applications for candidate projects from the States. Projects administered by the FHWA Office of Federal Lands Highways or the FLMAs are subject to procurement processes identified in the Federal Acquisition Regulations. Project awards are subject the availability of funds.
Deadlines (094):
Contact the headquarters or regional office, as appropriate, for application deadlines.
Range of Approval/Disapproval Time (095):
From 1 day to 5 months.
Appeals (096):
Not Applicable.
Renewals (097):
Not Applicable.
Assistance Consideration (100)
Formula and Matching Requirements (101):
Statutory Formula: Title 23, Part 101. Federal-aid highway funds are generally apportioned to the States by statutory formulas.
Matching Requirements: Percent: 20.%. Typically, 80% of costs are federally funded with a 20% matching requirement.. See 23 USC 120. Exceptions apply; contact FHWA for specific information.
This program has MOE requirements, see funding agency for further details.
Length and Time Phasing of Assistance (102):
Federal-aid highway funds generally become available at the beginning of the fiscal year for which they are authorized and must be obligated within 3 years after the close of that fiscal year. However, some categories of funds are available until expended. See the following for information on how assistance is awarded/released: For formula funds, FHWA issues a notice of apportionment on October 1 of each fiscal year based on the authorizing legislation and appropriations act (or continuing resolution) for the applicable year. Contract authority.
Post Assistance Requirements (110)
Reports (111):
No program reports are required. No cash reports are required. No progress reports are required. SF-425. The FHWA division office in each State is responsible for the stewardship of Federal–aid highway funds in that State. They accomplish this using a variety of techniques ranging from program, process, and compliance reviews to involvement in individual Federal-aid projects. State DOTs have assumed oversight responsibilities for most Federal-aid highway projects. The FHWA division office will retain project approval actions that are either required by Law or based on a risk approach. The FHWA division office also may retain additional project approval action or get involved in some projects that have been designated Projects of Division Interest based on a risk approach. Certain non-construction activities, such as transportation planning, require periodic progress reports. Similar procedures apply to the FLMAs and FLTP projects with the FHWA Office of Federal Lands Highways providing the mandatory stewardship and oversight. A value engineering analysis or other cost-reduction analysis is required for each project on the National Highway System with an estimated total cost of $50,000,000 or more, a bridge project on the National Highway System with an estimated total cost of $40,000,000 or more; and any other project determined to be appropriate. Annual financial plans are required for projects with an estimated total cost of $100,000,000 or more. In addition, a project management plan must be submitted for projects with an estimated total cost of $500,000,000 or more.

Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) requires FHWA to establish national performance measures and standards for safety, infrastructure condition, congestion reduction, system reliability, and freight movement. State DOTs and MPOs will set individual performance targets and must make significant progress toward achieving targets established for the National Highway Performance Program and Highway Safety Improvement Program. State DOTs will be required to periodically report to FHWA on their progress toward the achievement of their targets. FHWA will use these progress reports and performance data to determine if the State DOT has made significant progress toward the achievement of their targets as well as meeting national standards. A series of rulemakings are currently underway to implement these requirements .
Audits (112):
In accordance with the provisions of 2 CFR 200, Subpart F - Audit Requirements, non-Federal entities that expend financial assistance of $750,000 or more in Federal awards will have a single or a program-specific audit conducted for that year. Non-Federal entities that expend less than $750,000 a year in Federal awards are exempt from Federal audit requirements for that year, except as noted in 2 CFR 200.503.
Records (113):
Project records and documents must be retained by the State or other governmental recipients/ sub-recipients as specified in 2 CFR 200.333. . For the Federal Lands Highway Program, the Federal Lands Highway Divisions maintain the project records.
Financial Information (120)
Obligations (122):
(Salaries) FY 14 $40,474,922,128; FY 15 est $40,600,000,000; and FY 16 est $49,700,000,000 - Part of this funding is used for salaries and expenses, but these obligation totals are not just for salaries.
Range and Average of Financial Assistance (123):
Federal-aid highway funds are provided to States on an annual basis, by a combination of statutory formula and discretionary allocation . The most recent authorization act is the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) and its subsequent extensions.
Program Accomplishments (130):
Fiscal Year 2014: The share of travel on NHS pavements with good ride quality rose from 48 percent in 2001 to 59 percent in 2014 despite MAP-21 increasing NHS mileage by almost 60,000 miles. Bringing pavements up to a state of good repair yields benefits to system users in the form of decreased wear and tear on vehicles and resulting repair costs,; reduced traveler delays,; and lower crash rates.

The percentage of structurally deficient bridges dropped from 13.1 percent in 2005 to 10.0 percent in 2014, even as the total number of bridges in the Nation's inventory increased from 595,668 to 610,749. Similarly, the percentage of the deck area (a measure of bridge size) on bridges classified as structurally deficient has dropped from 9.8 percent in 2005 to 7.1 in 2014. Fiscal Year 2015: No Current Data Available Fiscal Year 2016: No Current Data Available
Regulations, Guidelines, and Literature (140):
23 CFR, "Highways" and 49 CFR, "Transportation", and 2 CFR 200, Grants and Agreements. http://www.fhwa.gov.
Information Contacts (150)
Regional or Local Office (151) :
See Regional Agency Offices. Multiple, see www.fhwa.dot.gov for specific State offices. State-level division offices of the Federal Highway Administration (as listed in Appendix IV of the Catalog) or State transportation agencies.
Headquarters Office (152):
Thomas Everett 1200 New Jersey Avenue, S.E., Washington, District of Columbia 20590 Phone: (202) 366-5530
Website Address (153):
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov
Examples of Funded Projects (170):
Fiscal Year 2014: California: ITS Installation & Signal coordination for Willow Ave from Ashlan to International Ave In the City of Fresno.
Maine: Replace Sarah Mildred Long Bridge over the Piscataqua River, at the Maine-New Hampshire State Border.
Oregon: Replace the US 199 bridge over the Applegate River, west of Grants Pass, with a 550’ long & 43’ wide structure. Fiscal Year 2015: California: Environmental Mitigation in and near the City of Willits at 0.6 miles east of Upper Creek Bridge in Mendocino Co.
Montana: Glacier National Park, Reconstruction of West Entrance to Avalanche.
Tennessee: Natchez Trace Parkway, Overlay Park Road-PM Project from MP 428 to 447 (19.00 Miles).

Budget Fiscal Year 2016 project awards will be similar to previous year awards. Fiscal Year 2016: No Current Data Available
Criteria for Selecting Proposals (180):
To be eligible, most projects must be located on public roads that are not functionally classified as minor rural collectors and local roads. The major exceptions are bridges not located on Federal-Aid highways; highway safety activities; bicycle and pedestrian projects, transportation alternatives and enhancement activities, the recreational trails program, and planning, research, development, and technology transfer. Proposed projects meeting these and other planning, design, environmental, safety, etc., requirements can be approved on the basis of State and local priorities within the limit of the funds apportioned or allocated to each State.